Jujutsu

Jujutsu Jujutsu Red Japanese Art / Art Source: Soniei

Discipline
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COUNTRY OF ORIGIN:Japan
TIME OF ORIGIN:Developed between 1333-1573
PRACTISED:Approx. 617 years
FOUNDERS:

Takenouchi Hisamori

FOCUS: 

Hybrid, Grappling

ALSO KNOWN AS:Ju-Jitsu, Jujitsu, Jiu Jitsu
PARENTHOOD:

DESCENDANTS:

Aikido, Bartitsu, Catch Wrestling, German Ju-jutsu, Hapkido, Judo, Sambo, Shooto

OLYMPIC SPORT:No

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Discipline
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NATIONALITY:
DATE OF BIRTH:
AGE:Approx. 617 years
BORN:

Aikido, Bartitsu, Catch Wrestling, German Ju-jutsu, Hapkido, Judo, Sambo, Shooto

RESIDENCE:-
ALSO KNOWN AS:Ju-Jitsu, Jujitsu, Jiu Jitsu
OCCUPATION:

Hybrid, Grappling

JOB TITLE:

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Discipline
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COUNTRY:Japan
LOCATION:-
FOUNDED:Developed between 1333-1573
OPERATIONAL:Approx. 617 years
FOUNDERS:

Takenouchi Hisamori

ALSO KNOWN AS:Ju-Jitsu, Jujitsu, Jiu Jitsu
SECTOR:

Hybrid, Grappling

DESCRIPTION:

WEBSITE:

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Jujutsu

Summary

Jujutsu is a traditional Japanese martial art that employs a combination of techniques that aim to defeat an opponent. Most of the techniques make use of hand-to-hand combat and a number of kicking techniques. Jujutsu is traditionally used in battles that do not involve arms and weapons. “Gentle practice” is what Jujutsu is all about. The Jujutsu warrior uses his opponent’s aggressiveness, momentum and balance to win over the battle. Jujutsu techniques are also employed in battles that make use of weapons such as samurai swords and sears.

 

History / Origins

ETYMOLOGY

The word “jujutsu” is a combination of Japanese words “ju” which means flexible, versatile or gentle and “jutsu” which means practice or art. Joining these two words together, it gives this Japanese martial art the literal meaning “gentle practice” or “flexible art.”

When this art of self-defense became popular in the Western regions before the first half of the 20th century, people preferred to use the terms “jiu-jitsu” and “jujitsu” rather than its original counterpart.

BEGINNINGS

The traditional Jujutsu was developed in Japan during the Muromachi period which dated from 1333-1573. Takenouchi Hisamori, a lord and military tactician from Mimasaka Province, developed Jujutsu by combining various Japanese martial arts used in the battlefield for close combat. The traditional Jujutsu focused on learning how to defeat a heavily armed warrior without using any weapons. True to its literal translation of “gentle practice,” a Jujutsu warrior uses his attacker’s aggressiveness and momentum, as well as his attacker’s weapons, to win the fight. Hand-to-hand strikes such as throwing, choking, immobilising and joint-locks are used in traditional Jujutsu.

The Edo Period between 1603 and 1868, under the Tokugawa military ruling, was Japan’s peaceful era where the use of a weapon was not permitted. Due to the restriction, hand-to-hand combat continued to flourish and became a well-known Japanese martial art. Eventually, most Jujutsu moves were developed for battles that make use of weapons such as samurai swords and sears.

PRESENT DAY

The passing of time has morphed and evolved Jujutsu. In the present times, Jujutsu is being practiced with the use of both traditional and modern martial arts techniques. From traditional Jujutsu, various fighting moves and self-defense actions are added to modernize it and cater to different needs, fighting styles, and preference of the warrior. Examples of modernized Jujutsu include Brazilian Jiu-jitsu which is a combination of Jujutsu techniques, Judo and old-style Russian wresting; Okinawan Karate which makes use of Jujutsu and Kung Fu; Kempo, a martial art that is half Karate and half Jujutsu; and Edo Jujutsu that is designed to defeat an opponent without a weapon or armour.

FOLKLORE

Because there are different versions of Jujutsu’s history, extracting a story on how Jujutsu began is not easy. There is Japanese folklore that tells how a warrior in Izumo named Nomi no Sekuni killed and won over Tajima no Kehaya in Shimane prefecture right in front of Emperor Suinin. Izumo won because he did Jujutsu’s striking, throwing and restraining techniques during the battle. Another mythical story that made use of Jujutsu tackles about two mythical characters, the legendary gods Kajima and Kadori. These gods reprimanded the inhabitants of an eastern providence for their lack of order and law. Kajima and Kadora punished the inhabitants through the use of the Jujutsu martial art.

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Practices

PHILOSOPHY

The philosophy of Jujutsu is to defeat opponent’s using their force and to not use the warrior’s own force. The warrior manipulates the opponent’s attacks, actions and momentum while controlling or disturbing his balance. In order to achieve victory, a Jujutsu warrior must have these three states of mind: zanshin, mushin and fudoshin, which can be achieved only after extensive training and mind-conditioning.

  1. Zanshin means “remaining spirit” in which the warrior is prepared for anything, at any time.
  2. Mushin refers to spontaneity or “no mind,” meaning that the warrior performs an immediate action without conscious effort.
  3. Fudoshin or “immovable mind” is a state of mental calmness and composure in difficult situations and un-ruffled self-assurance.

Japanese “gentle” martial arts such as Aikido, Judo and Jujutsu bear a common essential aspect called Ki. This aspect refers to one’s internal energy or spirit which is used in every action the body makes. Ki is believed to generate from the body’s seka tanden – the human body’s geometric center which is located one to two inches below the navel.

TECHNIQUES

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TRAINING

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RANKS & GRADING

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WEIGHT CLASSES

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Rules / Rulesets

RULES / RULESETS

Jujutsu may be a martial art that means “gentle practice,” but it can be very dangerous. That is why a set of rules must be strictly observed when using Jujutsu in sporting events and martial art matches. Basic rules deal with the physical aspects of the match: clothing must be clean and dry and one must go barefoot when doing a Jujutsu match. Nails must be cut short because Jujutsu is mostly hand-to-hand action. Clean feet are also proper because the match demonstrates kicking techniques. Technical rules consist mostly of restrictions in movements and techniques: no striking to the eye or nose area, no striking below the belt and no open-hand or back-spinning strikes. When delivering strikes, only the hands and feet are used. The use of head, elbows and knees is illegal. Similarly, biting, hair pulling, scratching and any finger lock or spine lock is illegal.

Organisations & Historical Places

ORGANISATIONS

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HISTORICAL PLACES

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Popular Culture

POPULAR CULTURE

Jujutsu has long been used in military unarmed combat and continues to be a model, basis and foundation for many specialized combats employed by security departments and law enforcement officials not just in Japan, but all over the globe. Jujutsu techniques also graced a number of Hollywood films. Steven Seagal often includes the art of Jujutsu in his movies as seen in the fight scene with John Machado in Under Siege 2. Jackie Chan also demonstrates Jujutsu techniques in most of his movies, including the four-part comedy-action Rush Hour series. Albeit the use futuristic weapons, Star Wars movies peppered action scenes with sword play that derived moves from Jujutsu.

Useful Links

USEFUL LINKS

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References

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