Glossary

Adriano Directo Emperado  Often considered the Father of Hawaiian martial arts and the most influential martial artist in Hawaiian history. Sijo Emperado is credited as the main creator of Kajukenbo.
 Aikido  Literally, "Meeting spirit way." A Martial Art developed by Uyeshiba Morihei in the 1930's. Based on Aikijutsu, Aikido is considered a non-aggressive art, using the opponents' energy against them. An Aikidoist in practice attempts to involve his partner in turning around his center axis.
 
BJJ  An abbreviation of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, widely considered to be one of the most effective martial arts in the world. It focuses on a grappling fighting style which enables the fighter to cope easily with a larger opponent without hurting him.
 Bo  A long wooden-staff weapon approximately 6 feet in length. Usually made of hard wood such as oak, although bamboo would have also been used in feudal Japan.
 Bokator  A Khmer martial art invented in the ninth century by the ancient Angkorian warriors for combat and self-defence. Widely regarded as the predecessor of Pradal Serey (Khmer Free Boxing) and one of the oldest existing fighting systems in Cambodia. It is a complete martial art which includes striking, grappling, trapping, locking, ground fighting, and using weapons for both attack and defense. Practitioners are trained to use different elbow and knee strikes, feints and shin kicks to fight an opponent to submission or death.
 Bokken  A wooden sword primarily designed as a safer alternative to real swords during practice, the bokken has attained the independant status of a weapon. Although it is usually made in the shape and size of a katana, it is not uncommon to find them resembling swords such as tantou and wakizashi. The bokken is used in a wide range of martial arts, including Kenjutsu, Kendo and Aikido.
 Boxing  Possibly the most famous, and one of the oldest combat sports in the world. Boxers compete with each other wearing boxing gloves and throwing punches at each other in an ultimate test of one’s superior strength, reflexes, speed, and endurance. The sport has immortalized many names during the course of its history, and has found place in prestigious international sporting events like the Olympics.
 Bushido  A Japanese philosophy which can be loosely compared to the concept of "chivalry". The term represents certain morals and values of the samurai including, but not limited to – meticulousness, devotion, martial arts proficiency and honor in both life and death. Bushido found its influences in Shinto and Zen Buddhism. These influences gave them a dualistic approach to life as being filled with both violent conflicts and tranquil serenity.
 
Capoeira  A Brazilian martial art that fuses fighting and dancing into unique rhythmical movements. It is performed by two persons and it is often described as a conversation, a dialogue that takes place between the two.
 Chess Boxing  A new “hybrid” sport which combines various elements of chess and Boxing into a challenging battle of wills. Though a relatively new sport, Chess Boxing is gradually gaining popularity throughout the world. What sets it apart from others sports in this category is how it requires physical strength and agility as well as strong mental capabilities. Essentially it is a round of boxing followed by a round of chess, and so on.
 Chuck Norris  An American martial artist and founder of the Chun Kuk Do discipline. Also known as a movie star and all round master of the universe!
 Chun Kuk Do  Chun Kuk Do is regarded as an offshoot of the Korean martial arts Tang Soo Do, to which Mr Chuck Norris added the American flavour and claimed it as his own. However, this effective combative style does not carry the genes of Tang Soo Do alone; this sport, in fact, is a compact bundle of various fighting styles of the world including Karate of Japan, and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.
 Close Quarters Combat  A term used to describe different types of armed or unarmed combat. It is mostly used in reference to military or law-enforcement tactics and includes a wide range of different techniques focusing on powerful, efficient and often deadly strategies of combat. It is mostly practiced by martial artists, military and law-enforcement personnel and elite fighting forces. The term also concerns with topics of weapons, ammunition, protective gears and special maneuvers. It can include confrontations involving various distances, ranging from 30 meters to hand-to-hand combat
 
Defendu  aka Defendo, Gutter Fighting. A modern form or Close Quarters Combat considered to be the basis of several modern fighting arts and is thought to be one of the most effective close quarter battle methods. The system was developed just before the World War II and taught to the officers of the Shanghai Police. Today, these techniques are still used by the law enforcement agencies.
 
Eskrima  A martial art which originated from Philippines and is known for its effectiveness and elaborate techniques. It is mainly weapon-based and famous for the fact that practitioners start using weapons as soon as they start practicing. Apart from a range of weapons, Eskrima includes kicking, punching, wrestling, grappling and some elements of groundfighting. Depending on the region, it is also called Arnis and Kali. With small variations, these three techniques comprise the FMA, Filipino Martial Arts system.
 
Fencing  A discipline with a long history. Today it is often referred to as Olympic Fencing, in order to distinguish it as a sports discipline from historical Fencing. It is one of the rare sports which have been practiced at every modern Olympic Games and is considered to be a prestigious discipline. The sport is divided into three different weapons – foil, épée and sabre.
 Filipino Martial Arts  An umbrella term that encompasses the fatal styles from the Philippines. The fighting styles are full of acts where liberal use of blades, and machetes are encouraged, and the mortality rates in this combative style could well justify the fact.
 
Grappling  A combative technique which involves technical time-tested movements which the opponents implement including submission, pinning, trapping, and throwing, to get the better of each other in a contest. There are many martial arts which have the principles of grappling incorporated in them and without it they are incomplete. Though grappling does not include the art of striking, or the use of weapons, but there are fighting styles which use grappling along with striking techniques to make the combat all the more effective.
 Greco-Roman Wrestling  Originated in France after the Franco-Prussian war in the 18th century by Jean Exbrayat. Initially called “flat hand wrestling” to distinguish it from other styles of wrestling, he set the rules that forbid holds below the waist. Emphasis is put on throws and their overall performance. The sport first appeared in the Olympics in 1896 and has morphed into other forms of sport like MMA.
 
Han Mu Do  An elaborate Korean martial arts system consisting of four areas of study, including empty hand techniques, the study of Ki, the study of weapons and the study of the philosophy of martial arts. It was created from various elements of several Korean martial art disciplines in 1989 by the famous He-Young Kimm. It is considered to be one of the best defense techniques and one of the most comprehensive contemporary martial arts systems.
 Hand-to-Hand Combat  A confrontation between two or more combatants fighting at a very short distance. It might involve the use of weapons, but it mostly refers to unarmed combat. The term is often used to describe the fighting style used in the military, but it is a style that is based on a variety of martial art disciplines. Hand-to-Hand combat, as it is taught in the military, is credited to William Ewart Fairbairn, who developed his techniques based on a loose interpretation of Chinese and Japanese martial art styles.
 Hapkido  A Korean eclectic martial art that makes use of fighting techniques such as kicks, hand attacks, punches, throwing, joint locks, and weapons. The art of Hapkido makes use of the opponent’s energy rather than the Hapkido practitioner’s own energy. This allows the practitioner to preserve his energy that he will later use to defeat the opponent.
 Hwa Rang Do  A Korean martial art of combative techniques which is made more lethal with the use of weapons. This martial art is not about physical fitness or trying to outsmart your opponents, it is more a journey within. It teaches people to inhabit other spiritual qualities apart from developing their mental selves.
 Hybrid  A term to describe a style of fighting that uses multiple disciplines instead of one. It mixes different techniques and forms one powerful system that works for the practitioner. There are different forms of hybrid martial arts, but they all have one philosophy: martial arts should foster free expression. Hybrid martial arts is often linked with mixed martial arts, but they are different. Mixed martial arts combines multiple styles. Hybrid martial arts combines aspects within the various disciplines and gives them a different interpretation.
 
Jeet Kune Do  A martial art form created by Bruce Lee in 1960. Lee did not consider this form of martial art a style, but a collection of principles to develop the body and mind. Its foundation lies in Wing Chun but also borrows techniques from Taekwondo, Wrestling, Boxing and Fencing. The Jeet Kune Do practitioner is encouraged to evolve his martial arts by absorbing those ideas that work for him and discarding those that don’t.
 Jieishudan  An English hybrid creation that is a blend of various time tested self-defence martial arts, including, ground fighting, and grappling. With some improvisations to the existing fighting styles, a dynamic form was created and baptised with a new name. After studying this art, a practitioner can effectively neutralize any attack, whether empty handed or armed.
 Judo  A Japanese combat method that was created in 1882 by Professor Jigoro Kano. It was derived from several Jujutsu styles, including Kito-Ryu and Tenjin-Shinyo Ryu. Its founder wanted to implement basic principles of maximum efficiency with minimum effort, as well as some principles of modern sports. Judo was intended to be a non-violent fighting style that also shapes the character of the practitioner.
 Jujutsu  A traditional Japanese martial art that employs a combination of techniques that aim to defeat an opponent. Most of the techniques make use of hand-to-hand combat and a number of kicking techniques. Jujutsu is traditionally used in battles that do not involve arms and weapons. “Gentle practice” is what Jujutsu is all about. The Jujutsu warrior uses his opponent’s aggressiveness, momentum and balance to win over the battle.
 
Kajukenbo  A hybrid martial art from Hawaii. The art form evolved in the late 1940s and its training is incorporated with movements like striking, throwing, kicking, joint locks, takedowns and weapon disarmament techniques. The students are trained to effectively coordinate different movements, and execute them in a synchronized manner. The dynamics of this fighting style speaks for itself, and has earned it the term, ‘The First American Mixed Martial Art.”
 Kama  aka Kai, Double Kai. A sickle-like weapon which was initially used only as a farming implement to reap crops in the Philippines and Japan. There are numerous shapes and sizes of this weapon throughout Asia.
 Kapu Kuialua  (also known as Lua), a martial art developed in Hawaii. The main focus of Lua is breaking bones and manipulating whatever joints are left open and vulnerable for attack. In Hawaii, Lua has had a long history of being used in warfare from the time native Hawaiians engaged in civil war and war against colonizers. The history of Lua is intertwined with the history and culture of Hawaii.
 Karate  A Japanese art and arguably one of the most popular combative martial arts in the world. Its effective combative techniques include liberal use of punches, kicks, elbow strikes, knee strikes, and open hand techniques to knock the opponents off their feet. Throws, grappling, and vital point strikes add another sting to this martial art.
 Kempo  A Japanese form of unarmed martial arts. The style originated in China and was brought to Japan 700 years ago. Though it is a fighting style, Kempo actually places little to no emphasis on the fight. The Kempo practitioner gets a feel for their opponent and, once their opponent strikes, attempts to end the fight as quickly as possible. Unlike many forms of martial arts, Kempo is strictly a defensive form of fighting. Most Kempo schools do not teach their students how to attack their opponents.
 Kendo  A Japanese martial art meaning literally “the way of the sword.” The art of Kendo combines basic martial art techniques as well as sports-like moves. Since Kendo today is also regarded as a contemporary sport, practitioners gather together to improve physical form and strength and to participate in Kendo matches.
 Kickboxing  A popular hybrid martial art from Japan. This fighting style has been crafted with techniques from Muay Thai, Karate, and western Boxing, all wrapped under one umbrella and given the name Kickboxing.
 Kino Mutai  Kino Mutai is a Filipino fighting technique that uses methods such as grappling, pinching, biting and gouging the eyes. It is an unconventionl form of martial arts that is not commonly practiced on its own, but is often incorporated in forms that allow for fighting without limits like Jeet Kune Do.
 Krabi Krabong  A martial art originated in Thailand by ancient Siamese warriors. It is an art of defending oneself through the use of a curved sword. Its philosophy came to life when Siam warriors fought for the welfare of Thailand during the Burmese war. Although predominantly weapons based this martial art also uses kicking and empty-hand techniques to defeat an opponent.
 Krav Maga  An Israeli self-defense system initially developed to teach military conscripts. Practitioners shy away from calling it a martial art style because it does not subscribe to the ideals that conventional martial art forms subscribe to. It can be applied in combat situations and in situations that may befall a normal person on the street. The system of Krav Maga is meant to be simple, but very effective and intuitive.
 Kuk Sool Won  A comprehensive Korean martial arts system founded in 1961 by Suh In Hyuk. It was founded as a complete system and is not limited to a single discipline. The goal of Kuk Sool Won was to create an elaborate study of different traditional martial arts of Korea, including their fighting techniques, weapon training skills and mental development methods. Today, this discipline is taught around the world and its students cover a wide range of different fighting styles.
 Kuk Sul Do  A Korean martial art developed by Grandmaster Choon S. Yang, who was sent to the US to promote Korean martial arts. Kuk Sul Do is the merger of various martial arts and its development can be attributed to different forms that exist in Korea.
 Kung Fu  A term coined by Westerners and while the term has been globalized, the concept has and always will be of Chinese origins. Also referred to as Gung Fu or Wushu, it is an umbrella term for Chinese martial arts. After the initial teaching by Da Mo, it developed in China for centuries into numerous fighting styles and became more than just defensive manoeuvres, which were studied from mammals, birds and insects. Today, Kung Fu is the study of not only defensive manoeuvres but also ethics and harmony.
 Kyokushin  A Japanese style of full contact Karate founded in 1964 and it is now estimated that over 12 million practitioners have cropped up across the globe and have armed themselves with this fighting style. This is an explosive combative art which is practical and meant to be used on the streets.
 
MMA  One of today's most popular systems, a legal sport that makes use of various martial art techniques and combating skills. The origins of MMA can be traced back to the time of Ancient Greek Olympics. As the world re-discovered the essence of martial arts in self-defense, MMA and other martial arts have been widely accepted as a form of entertainment as well. MMA matches are organized around the world, and the fights are widely accepted by different cultures – especially in the US.
 Moo Duk Kwan  A global organization that began in Korea which teaches practitioners comprehensive techniques of the Korean martial art named Soo Bahk Do. Translated as the “Institute of Martial Virtue”, it was created under the influence of ancient Korean fighting techniques, especially Soo Bahk Do. Today, numerous schools certified by the international organization teach Moo Duk Kwan. This martial art technique split into two groups, one including Soo Bahk Do, formerly Tang Soo do, while the other branch, Moo Duk Kwan Taekwondo, merged with eight other Kwans and formed Taekwondo.
 Moo Yea Do  A Korean hybrid martial art created by Tiger Yang in the late 1970's. Having studied disciplines like Taekwondo, Kung Fu, Aikido, Wing Chung, Judo, Kenpo and Jujutsu, he extracted elements in each of these martial art forms and created a new form he called Moo Yea Do.
 Mounted Combat  The act of fighting while riding a horse. Horse riding during warfare has been practiced by almost every civilization in history. From knights to Bushido warriors, the use of horses is common in all cultures. Riding fighters gained distinct advantages over foot soldiers; they were difficult to hit and had an elevated height. Weapons used in mounted combat are varied: from sticks to knives to swords to guns, horse riding soldiers used any weapon possible while fighting.
 Muay Boran  An umbrella term that encompasses various styles of unarmed Thai martial arts which were used before the introduction of modern rules, western boxing rings and equipment in 1930s. This group of arts utilizes different striking attacks, throws, ground grappling and joint locks. Muay Boran includes different Siamese (Thai) martial arts styles, including Muay Korat, Muay Jerng, Muay Chaiya and Muay Tasao, most popular being the Muay Chaiya, a southern style still taught in the Thai army today.
 Muay Thai  A discipline considered to be the cultural sport of Thailand. Muay Thai is often referred to as "the art of eight limbs” because of its use of punches, kicks, elbow and knee strikes. This popular style continues to gain a lot of ground globally.
 
Naginata  aka Long Handed Reaping Sword. A Japanese pole weapon originating in Japan and originally used by the samurai class. With its long wooden pole and 30 - 60cm curved blade at one end, this weapon is well over 2 meters. It was used effectively by both foot soldiers and mounted soldiers to stab, hook or batter an opponent, and to create space on the battlefield.
 Ninjutsu  A Japanese martial art with a blurred history, it is still practiced in different schools with reverence, and dedication. The horizon of this dynamic stealthy martial art is limitless, and so were the deadly effects of the Ninjas, who practiced it to grind axe with the ruling Japanese Samurai class.
 Nunte  aka Manji-sai. A Japenese weapon, similar to the better known Sai in both shape and size with the only difference being that one of it's arms is reversed. At grass root level, the Nunte was used as a fishing tool. The central part of the Nunte was used for striking, while it arms helped in catching the opponent’s weapon.
 
Pankration  An ancient art combining the stealth and harsh blows of Boxing with the entrapping holds and locks of Wrestling, Pankration entered the Greek games in 648 BC. What set this sport apart from either Boxing or Wrestling was its lack of rules. Almost anything was acceptable during a Pankration match. Pankration was meant for the fighter to use all available moves and resources to beat their opponent, making it one of the most brutal forms of fighting in the ancient world.
 
Sai  A traditional Japanese one-handed pronged weapon, often used in pairs. It's focus is primarily used to stab, trap, block and also catch an opponent’s weapon. There are various types of Sai with differing prong shapes and sizes.
 Sambo  A Russian martial art that makes use of combined martial arts skills such as Judo and Jujutsu. The development of Sambo strengthened the hand-to-hand combat style of the Russian soldiers. The philosophy of Sambo was “to leave no room for mercy,” and such philosophy was a product of Russian Army’s defeat over the Japanese warriors.
 Sanshou  aka Sanda. A Chinese martial art with a remarkably apt evolution, the literal translation is "unsanctioned fighting". It turned into a combat sport from a military training based on traditional Kung Fu and modern fighting techniques. Like many other branches of martial art, Sanshou propagates its own brand of philosophy that merges self defense tactics along with the promotion of good health, fitness and well being.
 Savate  A form of Kickboxing developed and practiced in France. Like many other forms of martial arts, Savate uses both hands and feet for striking an opponent. Unlike other forms of combat, feet are the only part of the leg used to hit an opponent. Using knees and shins to strike, common with other forms of Kickboxing, is not permitted. Another distinguishing aspect about Savate is that the fighters must always wear shoes, regardless of fighting conditions.
 Self Defence  An innate instinct with which all living creatures are born with to protect our survival above all. Our five senses, some say six, blend together seamlessly to ensure that we are able to protect ourselves from the elements. Many martial arts exist with self defence at their core.
 Shaolin Kung Fu  Shaolin Kung Fu is the journey to enlightenment. It is a way of life that creates the ultimate human. Using the strength, spirit and thought, it created warriors. Warriors, with total control over mind and body.
 Shootfighting  A Japanese hybrid martial art which is considered to be a combat sport and a street combat technique. It combines several traditional techniques, including Shoot Wrestling, Kickboxing and American Karate. The sport originated in Japan in 1970s, Bart Vale is considered to be its creator.
 Shooto  A relatively young martial art league. Its origin can be traced to the combat sport of ‘shoot wrestling’. This form of martial art was formed in the year 1985 and since then, it has seen a steady rise in its popularity around the world. The man behind developing Shooto is Master Satoru Sayama. A life-long exponent of Judo, Karate, and Muay Thai, Sensei Sayama infused Shooto with the best techniques and practices that he came across during his years as an active martial artist.
 Silat  A combative martial art that was developed in the Malay Archipelago, Nusantara, and Malaya Peninsula. Silat is, in fact, a collective name given to different styles of martial arts practised in ancient times in the regions which now comprise of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and south Thailand. With hundreds of different fighting styles, Silat comprises of dynamic body movements, including strikes, blade handling techniques, deadly joint manipulations, and throws.
 Stick Fighting  A term that refers to a wide range of martial arts which use simple, short, or long, blunt ‘sticks’ for fighting. Generally, wooden sticks are used and, depending on the particular technique, they differ in shape and weight. Some stick fighting techniques have been developed as defensive techniques. Others, such as Japanese kendo and Indian gatka, were developed as safe simulations of training with dangerous weapons. Some martial arts are completely dedicated to stick fighting, while others incorporate some of these techniques into their comprehensive systems.
 Submission Wrestling  aka Submission Fighting, Submission Grappling, No-Gi. A true hybrid form of martial arts that focuses on grappling and using submission holds. The purpose of submission wrestling is to get the opponent to submit. Unlike other combat sports, there is no established uniform or ranking system in their clothing. This art brings together styles such as Sambo, Folk Wrestling, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, Judo and Freestyle Wrestling (among others).
 Sumo  A heavy weight wrestling technique and national sport of Japan. It originated in the period of Tumulus (250-550). However, there have been a lot of changes made to it in the later stages, especially during the 17th century. It was initially performed as part of worship during festivals to entertain gods. From the 16th century onwards there was a drastic change in the way Sumo was appreciated.
 Sword Fighting  aka Swordsmanship. Refers to skills of an individual in the art of the sword. Although normally associated with Historical European Martial Arts (HEMA) also known as the Western Martial Arts (WMA), it is deeply interwoven into the histories of Eastern cultures. It can considered a form of martial arts as it requires hand techniques, particular footwork and a type of sword to encompass the movements.
 Systema  A Russian Martial Art style that uses hand-to-hand combat and known as the “No Rules, no belts” fighting art. It bases on the approach that in order for a fighter to be able to face any challenge, he has to make sure that the body, spirit and skill are in perfect synergy. It bases the training on the approach that when people are less tense and less fearful, they can face anything. Systema was exclusively taught to the Russian Special Forces units in Communist Russia until Communism ended and the style got introduced outside of the Military.
 
Taekkyeon  Considered to be Korea’s oldest form of martial arts dating back to the 5th century. It is a style that teaches fighters to take down their opponent without creating serious damage with trapping moves and light to medium kicks and throws. The subtlety of the art can be disarming because in reality it is an intense form of martial arts that can turn very dangerous. To an outsider, it might look like a dance because of the rhythmic movements, but it is a very effective fighting style.
 Taekwondo  aka Taekwon-do, Tae kwon-do, Tae kwon do. A dynamic Korean martial art dense with scientific fighting techniques and emphasis on kicking. It has its roots deep in the culture and tradition of the county's society. In the 1940s, masters in Korea blended the different fight forms like ‘Taekkyeon’, ‘Okinawan Karate’ and others and created a single effective fighting system. Taekwondo flourished around 1950s and 1960s within the South Korean military and other civilian organizations, including universities, and schools.
 Tai Chi  aka Taijizhang, T'ai chi, Taiji. An ancient Chinese martial art that later became a form of promotion of physical and mental health. The moves involved in this art are slow-paced, relaxed and easy, which makes Tai Chi an ideal form of exercise for people of all ages and health conditions. The use of contact, throws and traditional weapons can be seen at Tai Chi competitions.
 Tang Soo Do  aka Dang Soo Do, Kong Soo Do. A Korean martial art which is a fusion of different ancient fighting techniques commonly found in traditional fighting art of subak, shotokan karate, kung fu, and taekkyon. Tang Soo Do includes sparring contact sports events, where the contact level is controlled and moderate. The practitioners conclude that the sparring events are meant for people to gain a better understanding of the techniques, and be mentally prepared to execute focused body manoeuvres in crunch and stressful situations.
 Thaing  A practice that represents a range of Burmese martial arts, including Bando, Banshay, Lethwei and Naban. Disciplines that comprise Thaing are believed to have been influenced by Indian and Chinese arts. Originally, Thaing included nine forms, each representing one of Myanmar’s major ethnic group. These included Burmese, Indian, Chinese, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Mon, Talaing and Shan. It includes several techniques, including unarmed full contact combat, Kickboxing styles, Wrestling and grappling styles and arts of weapons.
 Tonfa  aka Tong fa, Tuifa. A wooden weapon with Chinese origins but used throughout Asia. Essentially it is a stick with a perpendicular handle located one third the way down it's length. The Tonfa is used in pairs and is an ideal weapon for blocking and striking an opponent.
 Tricking  An informal name for an alternative martial art performance movement that combines gymnastics with martial art movements. Tricking incorporates dynamic kicks from Taekwondo, Wushu styled Butterfly twists and complex flips that are found in Capoeira. Movements are highly stylized which makes this a unique form of martial arts because it looks like Martial arts but it can easily look like a form of gymnastics especially when it is accompanied by music as most trickers usually do.
 
Vale Tudo  A combat sport similar to Mixed Martial Arts, however, there are no rules restricting the fighters’ moves, enabling moves such as striking of the groin or head butts which are prohibited in most other sports. Vale Tudo literally translates from Portuguese to English as "anything goes". This sport is a combination of various martial arts such as Judo, Jiu-jitsu, Muay Thai, Taekwando and Karate.
 
Weaponry  A dictionary definition of the word Weaponry would tell you that it is "the science of designing and making of weapons". Whilst this is true, within Martial Arts it may also mean "the teaching and learning of how to use weapons". Martial Arts weaponry is still in use for purposes of competition, self-defense, physical fitness, entertainment, as well as for physical and mental spiritual development and tranquility.
 Wing Chun  aka Ving Tsun, Wing Tsun. A dynamic principle-based Chinese martial art rich in history, and mainly utilized for self-defence. It is a form of close range combat and it involves movements like strikes and grappling. There is lot of confusion about the origins of this martial art, but that does not take away the effectiveness of this fighting style which enables a person to grow physically, mentally, and spiritually.
 Wrestling  The oldest of all combat sports, Wrestling has been re-invented in numerous forms. In all, it is about being in dominating position, putting the opponents in a submission and making them hapless. Wrestling is an art which needs muscular strength and stamina and with its dynamic techniques of takedowns, throws, pins, joint locks, and grappling holds, the contests becomes absorbing and entertaining to watch.
 Wu Shu Kwan  A martial art of Chinese Boxing or Kickboxing. It stands for a systematic and effective style of self-defense. It is a blend of traditional Chinese fighting techniques, much different from the Western-style boxing. Wu Shu Kwan represents a wide range of fighting moves and philosophical principles, and has undiluted training methods from ancient arts. It is considered by some to be an unsurpassed method of complete self-defense and an extremely effective form of total fitness training.
 Wushu  A very popular offspring of ancient Chinese martial arts and its techniques. This style comprises of different traditional combative fighting styles. It is the outcome of continuous efforts taken by different institutes to bring various martial arts under one roof. The efforts had begun since as early as 1928, when Central Guoshu Institute was established in 1928 at Nanking. It is often considered as a twin of Kung Fu, only that it is a more spectacular event, and a full contact combat sport.
 
XMA  A brand name owned by Chaturantabut that represents a performance art which encompasses elements of Martial Arts, aerobics, gymnastics; however, the emphasis is mainly on the showmanship and tricking. Xtreme Martial Arts makes such moves grab the attention of the audience. Weapon choreography and open hand movements are accompanied by dramatic music or programmatic music.
 
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